Hook up vs rape

  • How Does Hookup Culture Affect Sexual Assault on Campus?
  • How Hookup Culture Promotes Rape Culture
  • Exploring the Influence of Hookup Culture on Female and Male Rape Myths.
  • Exploring the Influence of Hookup Culture on Female and Male Rape Myths.
  • Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: An Exploratory Study of U.S. College Students’ Perceptions
  • Sexual Assault: What Does the Hook-Up Culture Have To Do with It?
  • Hookup Panic: No, Casual Sex Does Not Lead to Rape
  • Rape and the hook-up culture
  • How College Hook-up Culture Encourages Sexual Assault
  • Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review

The resulting efforts from universities represent important steps to respond to victimized students, hold perpetrators accountable, and promote campus safety. In this environment there is an inversion of previously dominant dating scripts: Theologians and ethicists have raised concerns about this environment, largely highlighting the supposed dangers of practices that separate romance and commitment from sexual expression, thus necessarily leading to mutual objectification of sexual partners. In response, it is common to presume that the best thing to do is promote a return to dating practices and sexual expression only in the context of committed relationship. In contrast, I think it is important that we attend to this relational and sexual culture as a particular manifestation of rape culture. In her new book, Asking for It:

How Does Hookup Culture Affect Sexual Assault on Campus?

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: An Exploratory Study of U. College Students’ Perceptions Sex Roles, Sarah Becker. Matthew Valasik. College Students’ Perceptions. Sex Roles DOI College Students’ Perceptions Timothy T. To understand such high rates of sexual violence and myth acceptance levels among a sample of U. Findings indicated the existence of a complex rela- pervasive rape culture in U. Specifically, numerous studies examined the effect ined.

Beliefs that hookups are harmless and elevate social rape myth acceptance has on forming culturally normative status increased rape myth acceptance, whereas beliefs that attitudes toward sexual assault. Rape myths remain widely hookups express sexual freedom decreased rape myth accep- accepted throughout the United States Franiuk et al.

Consistent with previous studies, the predic- assault Page ; Sleath and Bull These beliefs can tive power of gender and religiosity in determining levels of contribute to bystanders, friends, and family members reacting rape myth acceptance were shown to be significant. When in ways that re-traumatize survivors Ahrens Even sur- controlling for levels of hookup culture endorsement, the ex- vivors can internalize rape myths, which increases self-blame planatory power of these variables decreased, and hookup and may lead to unreported Clay-Warner and Burt ; Du culture endorsement had the largest effect upon rape myth Mont et al.

Miller , deepening the psychological injuries associated with victimization. Efforts to address rape myths and reduce sexual violence Keywords Rape myths. Hookup culture. Gender by increasing awareness of and education about sexism, sex- ual assault, and harassment have intensified greatly over the past half century. Much of this work focused on college cam- Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article puses Barone et al.

These efforts were met with some suc- which is available to authorized users. Reling from the workplace Estrich ; Hoffman and Hardyman trelin2 lsu. Further, serious legal sanctions now exist for sexual assault and harassment Beichner and Spohn ; 1 Department of Sociology, Louisiana State University, Stubbs Dobbin and Kelly ; Tinkler Though several iterations of rape myth and sexually derogatory public speech Nielsen , measures exist initial research classified beliefs into the cate- This raises important analytical and theoretical ques- gories of victim precipitation, offender intentions, victim plea- tions.

If awareness of and lack of tolerance for sexual aggres- sure, definitions of rape, false allegations of rape, the triviali- sion and harassment increased over the past four to five de- zation of rape, and the deviance of rape Burt ; Payne cades, why do young people continue to accept rape myths et al. During the same time that include categories of victim precipitation, offender intentions, feminist activists, researchers, educators, and practitioners definitions of rape, and false allegations of rape McMahon worked to reduce sexual violence and harassment, dating and Farmer Regardless of measurement changes, key norms across U.

Often framed as sex positive and part of the twentieth century. This body of research demon- promoting sexual freedom, participation in hookup culture is strated the intransience of the subset of cultural myths about uneven and less ubiquitous than popular belief suggests sexual violence that most closely align with traditional hetero- Wade Nevertheless, it powerfully shapes college so- sexual sexual scripts. Like the intimacy norms that as cultural attitudes toward stranger rape and workplace ha- predated it, hookup culture disproportionately benefits the rassment hardened.

Rape myths that reinforce traditional gen- privileged i. Emerging in tional patterns in gender inequality. The overlap iors Stinson The primary element of hookup culture between rape myth acceptance and hookup culture endorse- is the presence of a wide-range of casual sexual interactions ment has not been examined, but separate studies of the two outside of a committed relationship. While participation in phenomena reveal overlapping correlates. The current study hookups was not as widespread as popularly believed investigates this overlap using survey data from college stu- Kimmel ; Wade , its norms of avoiding com- dents at a large U.

A limited number of studies measured hook- characteristics mediate the relationship. Sex Roles Most research on participation in and impacts of hookup Currier ; Sweeney a. These works powerfully illustrate how even They benefit less from the interaction and face a higher risk of though its norms emphasize sexual freedom and ostensibly stigmatization Currier ; Kimmel Women can gain apply to all young people, hookup culture largely reinforces status from hooking up with a high-status man, but those who sexism and racism rather than challenging inequality.

It bene- gatekeep poorly by saying yes to too many or the wrong type fits men more than women. Men have disproportionate con- of men risk being labeled undesirable future partners Currier trol over the timing, location, and sexual pleasure of a hookup ; Sweeney a. Armstrong et al. Benefits for men and women were also unequally dis- Contextual Factors tributed by race and class. That there is contextual overlap between cam- culture Rupp et al. Studies found hook- up culture carries the risk of participation in unwanted sexual acts and resultant negative emotions Jozkowski and Peterson Hookup Culture and Rape Myth Acceptance ; Monto and Carey ; Stinson In addition, college students attribute occurrences of unwanted sexual A review of the literature highlights a common underpinning contact to locations and circumstances where hookup behav- of hookup culture and commonly-believed rape myths.

Both ior is more common such as dorms, off-campus apartments, depend on and reproduce the hegemony of traditional and fraternity houses where alcohol is more likely to be pres- heteronormative sexual scripts and gender norms for sexual ent Ward et al. Data also suggest rates of sexual assault interaction. When Hayes ; Paul et al. Although researchers have yet to examine this living up to feminine norms associated with the traditional relationship, separate studies analyzing the demographic cor- heterosexual interaction.

For example, gender is among the strongest feminine gatekeepers. Similarly, al- of sexual interactions with different women partners Currier though neither gender is impervious to accepting rape myths, ; Wade They are not exempt from the social risks men consistently exhibit higher rates of rape myth acceptance associated with hooking up with an undesirable partner, but Ching and Burke ; Giacopassi and Dull ; they retain more power than women do to redefine less-than- Gilmartin-Zena Gray et al.

Men who place little importance on religion Burt tion Freymeyer Fewer but more recent work has identified no such racial difference studies examine religiosity and hookup culture endorsement, Carmody and Washington Initially, Weinberg and and findings on the topic are mixed. Some find higher levels Williams found that Black individuals endorsed casual of religious service attendance reduces the probability college sexual encounters at greater rates than White individuals.

Other studies find no evidence of a relationship rates for casual sexual interactions Owen et al. Many researchers found Asian students exhibit the participation Bernston and Hoffman Asian students are also consistently the least likely to myth acceptance is present in previous research. Most researchers attribute this find- are significant predictors of rape myth acceptance. Although members of fraternities exhibit the highest ence to multiple intolerant belief systems exponentially in- levels of rape myth acceptance Bleecker and Murnen ; creases the likelihood of rape myth acceptance.

Researchers Foubert et al. Many studies also find that fraternity and sorority Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: A Conceptual members participate in hookups at higher rates than do stu- Relationship dents not involved in Greek life Bartoli and Clark ; Robinson et al. In particular, fraternity members consistently exhibit many predictors. Although neither gender is impervious, men the highest levels of hookup culture endorsement.

Greek life affiliation, particularly fraternity membership, is an important predictor of both Bartoli and Ideological Factors Clark ; Bleecker and Murnen ; Foubert et al. Few studies empirically examine the impacts of ideological ; Sweeney a. The influence of race is debated, but factors on hookup culture and rape myths, but those that do Asian respondents consistently have the highest acceptance of find religiosity significantly influences rape myth acceptance rape myths Kennedy and Gorzalka ; Lee et al.

Highly religious individuals tend to believe in Markus and Kitayama ; Owen et al. Of the remaining women that in gendered ways. In addition, rape and men identified as White. Statistically significant gen- As such, there is an underexplored connection between the der differences were found for age, t If we understand hooking-up includes a broad spectrum of sexual behaviors with hookups resulting in rape Procedure and Measures or sexual assault if consent is lacking, it is possible to concep- tualize hookup culture as a broader set of cultural norms that We recruited students enrolled in introductory sociology also encompasses rape culture.

Thus, attitudes endorsing both courses during the Spring semester to minimize the like- should be similarly structured, with rape myth acceptance be- lihood participants had taken courses including rape education ing strongly and positively influenced by hookup culture because previous research found rape education decreased endorsement. Because rape myth and hookup culture endorse- rape myth acceptance Hertzog and Yeilding ; ment both vary strongly by gender, any influence hookup McMahon Gender, age, and racial distributions of the culture has on rape myth acceptance is also likely to be gen- sample relatively matched the undergraduate population LSU dered.

The current study therefore assesses the association Division of Strategic Communications The online sur- between rape myth acceptance and hookup culture endorse- vey was constructed and administered to participants via ment by testing two hypotheses: Consistent with our IRB approval, Hypothesis 1 and b the influence of hookup culture en- extra credit was offered for participation in this study at the dorsement on rape myth acceptance will differ for U. All participants had the option and female college students Hypothesis 2.

To mitigate psychological harm, participants were administered a list of local mental health services to contact should the need have arisen. Overall, their average age was Of the utilized as a measure of hookup culture endorsement. The construct validity She Asked for It e. BA man tion Bleecker and Murnen ; Foubert et al. Respondents rated each of the 44 items on a 5- assess the influence of intimate interpersonal commitment on point scale ranging from 1 Strongly Disagree to 5 Strongly rape myth acceptance because individuals in committed rela- Agree.

Responses across items on each of the five subscales tionships may be less endorsing of hookup culture. Spirituality were additive so that higher scores indicated stronger beliefs and religiosity were included as control variables to assess the on that particular subscale, and the subscales themselves were influence of ideological factors and were measured using the additive so that higher scores indicated stronger rape myth 6-item Self-Ascribed Spirituality and Religiosity Variables acceptance in general.

PDF | The present study provides the first known systematic examination of the association of hookup culture endorsement and rape myth. My husband and I were walking across Harvard’s campus talking about hookup culture, the Steubenville rape case, and whether we thought there was a.

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A searchable database of the laws, people, organizations, and litigation involved in sexual and reproductive health and justice in the United States. Romantic fulfillment?

Due to pressure applied by student activists and the Department of Justice, colleges all over the United States are trying to reduce the incidence of sexual assault on campus, or at least trying to avoid bad publicity or the loss of federal funds. Asked what subject might benefit from more rigorous debate, Leah Fessler, a recent college graduate who writes about romance, sexual culture, and gender dynamics, wondered if looking at unwanted sex from a different angle might help. Is campus rape sometimes an extension of hookup culture — the far, disturbing end of an increasingly fluid “sexual culture spectrum”?

Exploring the Influence of Hookup Culture on Female and Male Rape Myths.

The present study systematically assesses the influence of hookup culture endorsement on the acceptance of female rape myths i. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the primary hypotheses that a particular form of hookup culture endorsement i. As with prior research, a complex relationship emerged for both male and female rape mythology in which acceptance increases or decreases based upon the form of hookup culture endorsement examined, as the endorsement of beliefs reflecting heterosexual power dynamics e. Results supported the primary hypotheses that beliefs concerning hookups and status attainment would be the largest predictor of male rape myth acceptance and female rape myth acceptance. Consistent with prior research, the predictive power of gender and religiosity was initially significant across both male and female rape myth acceptance yet diminished when controlling for levels of hookup culture endorsement. Furthermore, analyses indicated gender differences among the influences of hookup culture endorsement for female rape myth acceptance alone, as even though beliefs concerning status served as an aggravating factor for female rape myth acceptance, beliefs concerning sexual freedom served as a mitigating factor for women only.

Exploring the Influence of Hookup Culture on Female and Male Rape Myths.

What does it mean to be part of a hookup culture? To be sexually active in any way, shape, or form today? That having sex is somehow bad? To participate in a system that puts intimacy on the ladder to rape culture even? Does hooking up somehow invite the risk for violation? Even in a time as supposedly sex-positive as this one, hookup culture can still come off as something to be avoided or ashamed of — especially if you are a woman or belong to the LGBTQ community. The prevalence of hookup culture as an everyday norm among young people has supposedly skyrocketed — yet there are still a number of stigmas that permeate the ways we think of and refer to casual sex. There are plenty of other terms used widely to describe intimacy, and not all of them are positive. This not only makes sexual behavior seem stigmatized and somehow negative — it makes it more difficult to call out rape culture when we see it. This is especially true when we shame people for enjoying sex — women in particular are often labeled as sluts or whores for having hooked up at all.

The problem of sexual assault is not new. Tomorrow, we will propose some solutions that aim at the heart of the problem—a culture that reduces sexual activities to the level of recreation—but in order to arrive at a solution, we first need to understand the reality of the problem we face.

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Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: An Exploratory Study of U.S. College Students’ Perceptions

Rape is a detestable crime and one instance is one too many. Unfortunately, the numbers for rape in the Philippines are harrowing. Incidentally, one consequence of increased rape cases is that moves to amend the Constitution and legalize abortions of rape-related pregnancies could gain traction, as pro-lifers will have a difficult time defending against such a powerfully emotional argument. In any event, as disturbing as the above numbers are, tragically it could get worse. When he ended up falling asleep on her bed, she changed into pajamas and climbed in next to him. Soon, he was putting his arm around her and taking off her clothes. I was just tired and wanted to go to bed. I let him finish. I pulled my panties back on and went to sleep. And that a hook-up culture has taken root in the Philippines is palpable.

Sexual Assault: What Does the Hook-Up Culture Have To Do with It?

I spent the first three years of undergrad hearing everyone’s tales of casual sexual exploits, fueled by alcohol, and figured that was the norm. I was part of this culture. I went to parties, high-fived friends for hookups, wing-manned When you are part of a culture that tells you getting laid is always a net positive, it’s difficult to see the dark underside of that. Lisa Wade , a sociology professor at Occidental College, has been researching our generation’s sexual habits. Her new book, ” American Hookup:

Hookup Panic: No, Casual Sex Does Not Lead to Rape

And while I do not agree with him, I found that I could meet him halfway. His argument that rape culture does not exist and what we perceive to be it is actually hookup culture is, in my opinion, wrong. However, I will say that after reading his article and thinking about hookup culture in more depth, I truly believe that hookup culture directly influences rape culture. And so long as it exists, so will rape culture. After I read his article I realized that he was not alone in his belief that rape culture does not exist. Many other articles have been written expressing a similar view.

Rape and the hook-up culture

Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. However, these encounters often transpire without any promise of, or desire for, a more traditional romantic relationship. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. We reviewed the current literature on sexual hookups and considered the multiple forces influencing hookup culture, using examples from popular culture to place hooking up in context. We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. Popular media representations of sexuality demonstrate the pervasiveness of a sexual hookup culture among emerging adults.

How College Hook-up Culture Encourages Sexual Assault

Photo Credit: Hedda Selder. Sex on campus sucks. But when I first arrived at my medium-size New England college with a youthful outlook and a spring in my step, I thought quite differently. Despite my M. And I wondered what all the fuss was about. I had just turned 18, and my life was ahead of me.

Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review

In a culture where hook-ups are casual and one night stands are normalized, bad sex is inevitable. The average sexually active individual has no doubt experienced awkward encounters that began with a can of PBR and ended with a walk of shame the morning after or something similar. Similarly, I, meeting up with a guy I like, am likely to down a glass of wine or two during the date to take the pressure off. Meeting his friends for the first time a few dates later? Our guards, and our inhibitions, get a lot more relaxed after a few drinks, and this is a fact I use to my advantage. So what makes rape different from a night of bad sex? What is the difference between sex with somebody who has had a few drinks to take the edge off, and hooking up with a girl who is inebriated?

“Teach Men Not to Rape” is Stupid Rhetoric